How Artificial Intelligence Is Changing Science

from Quanta

No human, or team of humans, could possibly keep up with the avalanche of information produced by many of today’s physics and astronomy experiments. Some of them record terabytes of data every day — and the torrent is only increasing. The Square Kilometer Array, a radio telescope slated to switch on in the mid-2020s, will generate about as much data traffic each year as the entire internet.

The deluge has many scientists turning to artificial intelligence for help. With minimal human input, AI systems such as artificial neural networks — computer-simulated networks of neurons that mimic the function of brains — can plow through mountains of data, highlighting anomalies and detecting patterns that humans could never have spotted.

Of course, the use of computers to aid in scientific research goes back about 75 years, and the method of manually poring over data in search of meaningful patterns originated millennia earlier. But some scientists are arguing that the latest techniques in machine learning and AI represent a fundamentally new way of doing science. One such approach, known as generative modeling, can help identify the most plausible theory among competing explanations for observational data, based solely on the data, and, importantly, without any preprogrammed knowledge of what physical processes might be at work in the system under study. Proponents of generative modeling see it as novel enough to be considered a potential “third way” of learning about the universe.

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  1. Artificial intelligence has become more and more prominent as we gave progressed through the last two decades. I thought that implementing them into our houses and phones was a big step but now I see that they are being used for even bigger and more important jobs in science. I can’t say I’m surprised however, to see them being used for science. I’m more surprised that it’s happening so soon and that they are able to take on such he projects. But if I were a scientist right now I would be scared of what the future may hold. In the article, the author claims that nothing a scientist does can’t be automated by AI. This could mean that in the future our scientists are just some sort of AI with a technician in charge of keeping it running. This makes going into a scientific field like astronomy more of a gamble because the future job market for them could be significantly smaller. On top of that, you will also now probably need some sort of background in coding to be more effective on the job and more appealing to potential employers. Overall, the uprising of AI in science looks a little worrying for current and future scientists.
    It isn’t all worrying though. The new artificial intelligence being implemented in science make processes much faster. One example given by the author was the Galaxy Zoo experiment. People would help astronomers guess were the galaxies were located. The project was a success but took an extended period of time, and now with AI, that experiment has become obsolete because the AI can do it in just one afternoon. With this type of speed and efficiency, scientific break throughs should start happening more frequently. This is potentially great news for fields that have been struggling to produce full proof answers. We see this mostly in the medical field, things such as cancer research, golden heart syndrome, crohn’s disease, etc. With the help of AI we could find cures or helpful information that could lead to prevention and eventual eradication. The prospects of this have me excited because the possibilities are endless. There could be any number of changes, good and bad, in all scientific fields with the help from artificial intelligence.

  2. I used to think that scientist entered their field almost having their job guaranteed, especially as we continue to evolve all of our technology and integrate it more in our lives. As AI and other automated technologies get better, we see ourselves losing jobs to the machines we built, again I thought that scientist will never have to worry about a machine taking away their job. In science I believed you need to have a brilliant mind and that no machine no matter how complex can stela the mind of a scientist. This article had changed my mind, machines and computers are now able to process data better than a human ever could, as a result there is now a better and third way to analyze data points. Although this method has been used centuries before today it has now become more efficient than we could have ever dreamed of. These machines and AI take all the data points images that we feed it about the galaxy and can detect patterns that a human could ever do. This has now become a chilling thought, that now a computer could replace a scientist the people that we hold to a high standard of intellectualism can suddenly be replaced by a program. Which surprises me because I didn’t think that you could list a scientist job down to the point it could be automated. The however the article bring up the issue of creativity, that we need to have an imagination to be able come up with a solution to a problem we are facing. At this point in time we cannot upload a consciousness to a machine, a machine can’t be creative. That is when we come to a standstill because depending on the definition, we arrive to on what it means to be creative then a machine can be creative. If they run an algorithm that can detect patterns, we cannot see than it was able to “think” differently, which means it has the basis to being creative. One of the quotes in the article put to the side stated that if you want to be creative you have to dislike being bored, and a computer with its lack of feeling can never be bored. That would mean that a machine is already creative enough. This brings up to greater and existential question of will machines replace the biological hardware that we have? If they can already detect patterns could they learn to synthesize that pattern into an equation, we could not have?

  3. I think the subject of Artificial intelligence is the next step in human (as well as computer) advancements in the world. As our generation/s advance, so does our technology, and it’s interesting to see how the world is being changed by these advancements every day. While there is a side of me that thinks “robots will take over the world,” I know a lot of new artificial intelligences today are changing the world for the better. Not only is AI helping with subjects like science, medicine, etc., but it also touches into subjects like schooling and computer science. An interesting concept is trying to predict how far these technologies will go in the next few years. Will we have online college courses run completely by computers (AI)? Will surgeons be replaced by robots who are capable of doing more than a human would? Wherever we’ll be, I’m sure AI will play a major roll in it.
    One of the most fascinating subjects where artificial intelligence plays a roll is in online chatbot’s and help hotlines. It’s amazing that a program can take key words and phrases out of audio in order to help users solve issues they might have. Also, on a much larger scale, the AI in Siri and Alexa play a major role in the world today. I can’t go a day without using Siri’s voice features, and my grandparents (who are not the greatest with technology) have learned to rely on Alexa in their home. If the world keeps pushing the idea of implementing this in their lives, I’m sure advancements in tech will skyrocket. The more people/ programs we have working to create better AI, the faster the world will get another “upgrade.”
    As for artificial intelligence in science, we see new breakthroughs in the news almost every day now. AI has the ability to do things that humans can’t, giving us an upper hand in learning more about the world we live on as well as other planets/ galaxies. The simple fact that, with the use of AI, we can see father than we’ve every seen before, as well as calculate data faster than every before, is mind-boggling. As technologies like this thrive, so do advancements in science.
    Let’s take healthcare as an example. In this scenario, you have an elderly family member that lives alone. Maybe in a few years, there is a new technologically advanced assistant that can control all aspects of a house from the click of a button (not too far off from what we have today). If you know the elderly person was a classic pianist and loves music, you’d be able to teach the AI to choose songs based on the persons reaction to when the song is played to wake them up. Maybe you install a feature that reminds them of daily activities they have to accomplish that day or week. Maybe you find software to make a grocery list for them every time they finish a food-based item in their pantry. The list goes on and on; AI will be the future and will advance human capabilities.

  4. We still are moving towards a world where we will soon live in a world like iRobot with Will Smith where he is trying to stop the robots from taking over the world. Not only was that movie depicting a problem that some people believed in at the time to be possible and many thought that it would be impossible, but it was also an upgrade in the CGI that was used. The whole movie just showed exactly how we as a society are moving upwards and the focus question is whether it will be a step in the right direction. AI is taking over like never before and this is risky considering how it will easily take over many jobs in the future. One of the most interesting that I saw happen was with music. AI was used to write and compose its own song and music to go with it and as it turns out, it was really well produced and many people loved the song. Another industry that is changing, as the article states is the change in science. This can be a great thing for mankind. An article states “In materials science, as in other branches of experimental science such as drug discovery, we are able to obtain ever larger amounts of data from ever more sophisticated experiments and modelling.” This is great for some industries like the drug industry because with new advances, there may be even better medicines or pills that could benefit society. To have AI in hospitals could further help the human population by better medical practices and faster, more efficient ways to help a patient. However with every upside there is a downside. If the world turns to AI and it truly takes over the medical field, then this could easily replace nurses which are already an important field to have. Nurses are there to easily help out the patient and doctor by comforting the patient and keeping them stable with human interaction. Taking away nurses will not only put millions of people out of work but disrupt that interaction between humans . We will live in a world where everything is controlled by AI and this will affect the human population drastically.

  5. The technological development of artificial intelligence opens so many possibilities for humanity to advance. Computers being able to solve complex problems that do not have to be programmed with the solution. These computers would solve math problems faster and more accurate than any person could by hand. The advancement of artificial intelligence would allow computers to perform better than what the best human could. The advancements could eventually lead to a world where highly skilled jobs, such as doctors, will be replaced by robots that will have much higher success rates. The effects of artificial intelligence could lead to a world that has robots performing highly skilled jobs.
    Economically speaking, I believe that we are one major breakthrough away from having an economic revolution. We saw the invention of the steam engine cause massive changes in the world economy. People lost their ways of life and had to live with a major learning curve of technology innovation. Artificial intelligence could upheave many high skilled jobs, such as doctors and engineers. These people would lose many years devoted to mastering their skill only to be replaced by a robot. I am not sure how it would all play out, but the potential for high skilled workers to lose their jobs from AI is a possibility.
    As the artificial intelligence improves, the potential for artificial intelligence to turn on humanity, such as the turning of the slithery Kevin Durant, and annihilate their former friends, like the destruction of Russel Westbrook in the playoffs. Movies, such as the Terminator series, have artificial intelligence advancing to the point people getting slaughtered at the hands of snake-like tendencies that the artificial intelligence exhibits. The fear of the dystopian world, in which robots take over, seems to be hysteria about something rather impossible. Robots will never be able to have a scenario were world domination of artificial intelligence happens. Robots would have to be programmed to have emotions and to be free-thinking, which is impossible. Robots will never have the capability to take over the world and make humanity extinct.

  6. Artificial intelligence has clearly accelerated multiple fields of science. I think it is a necessary advancement of technology because these machines can more quickly and efficiently compute data as compared to humans. Plus, their data storage is more than an average human can just remember in their head. With this advancement, some highly skilled jobs in astrophysics, chemistry, biology, etc. may be replaced by AI. Any company that can find quick and efficient labor at a cheaper rate than humans is going to try it out. I feel like people in those fields will have to adjust to learning how to read and work these computers and robots. This will keep them relevant,while also keeping these systems running smoothly. Plus, if these computers have a much lower mistake rate and can work almost around the clock, they seem almost indispensable. Generative modeling is by far one of the most impressive aspects of this article. No human can do facial recognition or predict physical changes quite like that. Any of our facial recognition data that we use can be stored by these computers, and used to generate fake images or to replace pixels/ make blurry picture sharp. This could be controversial because of data collection used to generate these images, as well as the fact that it could be considered a simple form of invasion of privacy if people’s images are being used.
    The question of whether humans can be fully replaced now comes into play. I agree with the section of the article that talks about the critical thinking, analyzing, and interpreting portion that comes with these fields of study. As of now, these computers do not have the cognitive ability that we as humans do. We can use the information the devices give us to then draw conclusions and make observations. Being a researcher still is needed until robots are able to have the creative abilities that humans contain. Therefore, scientists are still needed to make theories and hypotheses because just analyzing raw data is hard for the average person to comprehend. With someone there to interpret and create a solution that makes sense for many to understand still leads me to believe that humans will not become replaceable right now. In time, maybe artificial intelligence resources may develop cognitive tendencies that humans have. If that does happen, then I believe the job market will severely suffer, not only in science fields, but business analytical fields as well. The thought of a full-on artificial mind (like Chappie) seems like it can be closer than anticipated. Until then however, humans’ ability to be creative still trumps the data collection of artificial intelligence.

  7. Not only is Artificial Intelligence changing science, but it is also changing a good deal of the current job market. As technology advances, job opportunities change, grow, and diminish. With the advent of the tractor, and other farming related tools and machinery, the necessary quantity of farmers decreased incredibly. Now, one farmer can use the same amount of time to work with far greater efficiency. AI will be bringing this type of advancement to many fields. Analytical work – be it in finance, or medicine – or technical work – be it production, or truck driving – will all be done with greater efficiency and less overall cost. Once driverless vehicles reach the extent of being safe enough and easy enough to implement into the common workforce, all manner of delivery and escort services will be done by AI, resulting in millions of employees losing their jobs. Such a structural change to the entirety of the job market will force those whose jobs’ were lost due to AI to learn new skills in order to earn a living. Such a transition won’t come without resistance, so the advent of Artificial Intelligence into daily life and work will be more difficult to implement than I believe most people assume.

    However, it’s not all dread and doom. Artificial Intelligence, as a new Industrial Revolution, will the pave the way for humanity to prosper further. Opening doors and paths to new technologies, ideas, and jobs, AI can be the greatest tool available for humanity. What is needed is regulation and control, striking a balance between using the new technology and having it control our lives. With proper foresight, I believe AI will the humanity’s next greatest step toward a prosperous future.

  8. Artificial intelligence has been increasingly prominent in the past decade. In the fields of science and medical research, the advancements of artificial intelligence have helped people create more sophisticated algorithms, which in turn assist with the research and development of new studies. Creating new neural networks where artificial intelligence performs tasks on its own is essential nowadays, especially with how many procedures need to be done in order to properly conduct processes in these fields. Scientific studies and medical research are no strangers to technological reliance. Those who work in either field likely develop a dependence on artificial intelligence of a higher degree, because the work needed to be done in these areas have little to no room for any errors. As such, creating systems of networks where artificial intelligence performs processes without effectively creating any errors while doing so is key to successfully doing this kind of work. Every day, people are trying to devise ways to improve artificial intelligence to make it as accurate and functional as it can possibly be. However, no matter how complex the algorithms may be, one thing that will always remain the same (for now, at least) is that artificial intelligence will continue to stem from how we create it. In other words, all of the algorithms for the foundation of artificial intelligence leading into the processes they perform all come from how humans craft it in the beginning. In a sense, it is somewhat ironic because we rely on artificial intelligence so much to reduce errors and increase efficiency, yet the structures of these artificial networks are typically devised from humans. It might seem like an AI could create another set of networks on its own without human interference, but the fact is that the original AI was developed by a human. Therefore, while artificial intelligence may be effective, its algorithmic roots all trace back to what we as humans can create in the area of technological products.

  9. There is no surprise to people that artificial intelligence is on the rise in recent years. Many people are worried as to what will happen to job roles that can be completed with the use of robots or better known as artificial intelligence. It is obvious, that many employers will want to use artificial intelligence, rather than to hire human beings because it will lower their costs significantly. As a result, many people will lose their jobs leading to a higher percentage of unemployment. It is scary to believe that a significant portion of the population that are students and aspiring to acquire a job after upon graduation, actually face the chance of artificial intelligence taking their position. The amount of money that college students currently spend on tuition and fees is beyond what the majority of people can afford, and do not receive an income post-graduation, would mean absolute chaos for those alums. Some examples of Artificial intelligence are the self-driving cars of Tesla. Tesla has come out with self-driving cars that require no driver, a true autopilot experience. These self-driving cars sound nice and luxurious, but there has been some controversy around them. There are multiple videos online that display pretty bad accidents that have occurred with Tesla’s self-driving technology.
    Don’t get me wrong, to have such advanced technology that gets you from point A to point B without anyone driving the vehicle is something many people of today find hard to believe. This type of technology has the power to dominate an entirely new industry, the food delivery and passenger transportation industry. Companies in this industry have to be cautious of how powerful Artificial intelligence is and the potential threat it brings by being able to steal their business. Uber and lyft should be aware that self-driving technology can wipe them out by being able to transport passengers without a driver and just an empty car. The idea of this may be frightening for some, but soon it will become the norm. Those that are refusing to enhance their technology skills are setting themselves up for a “diminished future.” We must advance our technological capabilities as much as we can so that us humans will not be left behind for what the future holds for us.

  10. Technology has come so far. These days, if you’re unable to use computers to your advantage, you won’t go anywhere in life. Computers are getting faster and faster every day. Soon our world will become nothing but artificial intelligent performing most tasks. I don’t see robots taking over humans anytime soon though. I think it’s possible, but we are still far away from that. One issue problem in our economy now is how technology is taking away jobs. Do you think someone really builds a Tesla with their bare hands? Making cars now our all done by robots. Sure, humans assist in the assembly line, but the machines are doing all the heavy lifting.
    Personally, I fear technology sometimes just for reasons like that. Technology isn’t always necessary in all cases though. For example, people don’t use golf carts even if they have the money. They rather the get the full experience walking a golf course with a caddie. If it wasn’t that way, I’d be out of a job. By 2050, artificial intelligence is going to be everywhere. Its going to have plenty of benefits, but there will obviously be problems. One being that computers aren’t always right. There will always be mistakes n matter how powerful the technology is.
    One thing you must do is accept fact that this is what our world is coming to. Our population is getting too large to a point where there is going to be so much competition in the job market. If you don’t have the skills when it comes to IT, you going to struggle. Many jobs will be created from advancements in computers, but many people will lose their job. Structural unemployment will eventually reach a peak taking out a large portion of the job market. What I’m most worried is the population growing faster than jobs being created. Their simply won’t be enough and we our going to have to find solutions in order to fix these major world issues. Who knows, maybe people will just have to start living on Mars.

  11. Artificial Intelligence is definitely the future, there are so many benefits it will have. However, there will be negatives that come with those benefits. The main issue with relying on AI is that it will take away from jobs from humans. There are people in the world that are struggling to find good paying jobs and if they do find them there is no guarantee that they will keep those jobs. There are certain things that can happen that can cause people to lose their jobs like budget cuts, a company going out of business, or employees being fired because they are not meeting the standards of the employers. Since jobs are such a problem right now having AI take these jobs is not a great Idea since it prevents people from having opportunities to get these jobs. Another thing to keep in mind is the jobs that are being replaced with AI might require humans. Farming is main thing that comes to mind because there is a certain degree of care that farmers put into their animals and crops, can a AI do the same. Of course, having AI can be a good thing but it is important to not go overboard with it. We should not try to replace humans with AI for every job it should only be done for jobs that require them. Technology is continuing to grow each and every day and because of this our society must learn to adjust to it so that it can become beneficial to everyone.

  12. People have always questioned whether or not AI will affect the human way of life in a drastic way. Artificial intelligence is inevitably the future of mankind. There are many videos that you can find online that are opposed to the idea of AI, believing that it will bring the end of humanity. I can definitely see it whether it be that AI take over many of the human jobs that can be automated to them finally figuring out that humans are a virus to the Earth. Many companies will automate jobs because it is not only more efficient but it is cheaper and companies are in the business of making money. This is kind of a sad realization as I feel many people are wasting so much money on college when in the end the job or career the look to obtain afterwards will become obsolete. So I think the solution here is to make sure that you acquire skills that can not be automated by AI. With the exponential increase in human population it will, in the future, be harder to acquire a job. Because now ypu are not only competing with other human being but a computer as well.

  13. With all the information being produced, and even more will continuously be produced as technology constantly improves and changes. When individual hear about Artificial Intelligence I think sometimes it is fear of the unknown and fear brought about from fictional movies or stories. I do believe these computer networks that mimic the capabilities of talented and very smart real-humans are beneficial like the article suggests though. Using these technologies can help work be done in record time and help complicated issues be resolved and information not easily detected or possible to be detected to be found. It is a completely different and new science that people should feel comfortable and be excited about. While, jobs for those specific jobs may be slowly replaced as this technology increases in use and changes in affordability, numerous other jobs in computer science can be created. The people who support this technology called proponents of generative modeling suggest it is a “third way” of learning about the universe and I would agree. But, as the article continues it does mention some scary and chilling points. Since this technology is already so smart and adaptive as we continue to upgrade it will only become smarter and will eventually be able to upgrade itself. This would wipe out all need for humans to actually research, observe and create information. With that in mind containing the capabilities of Artificial Intelligence would be of extreme importance. As the human mind has an innate need to learn and develop and with out the actual need to do things on their own humans might as well turn into a pile of mush.

  14. Artificial intelligence has carved out a huge role in today’s society, especially in the science and research industries. It has its benefits and drawbacks. Artificial intelligence can detect problems that humans tend to miss, and they are able to be more efficient than human workers in terms of analyzing data, research, producing products and services in many of the different sectors that the world and the economy has to offer. For companies, by using artificial intelligence, they are able to cut labor costs and increase the marginal benefit of each product and overall profit. Here is where the problem comes in. Artificial intelligence is bound to make mistakes too, and human workers are becoming ticked off because they are losing their jobs due to the increase in the number of robots replacing humans in the work force. As for the effect of artificial intelligence on science, the way that research is done has changed from humans analyzing data toward robots. That trend will only continue in the future as the amount of artificial intelligence increases around the world. I thought that it was interesting about how artificial intelligence is known as the “hardworking assistant” who never seems to slow down. Unlike humans, robots will not get tired of doing things over and over again and not complain about their work. I feel as if maybe workers would get ticked off over this statement, but unfortunately it is true for a lot of us who are in the work force. I can say from experience that I have come home from work feeling exhausted and then start to complain about having to go back to the work the next morning. I feel as if I don’t have enough time to do other things, and this creates a lot of stress. There have been times where I have had to work nine or ten days in a row because we were short on staff. By the sixth or seventh day, I would be so tired from doing the same thing. I do not mind the idea of artificial intelligence in our society. It can definitely help the economy in a lot of ways and certain sectors like healthcare, science, but not everyone will benefit from the increase of artificial intelligence in the world. There are those that include truck drivers and factory workers that will lose jobs because robots are able to produce more in a factory and the invention of self-driving cars cause drivers to not be needed anymore. It is a scary thing to think about. The thing is that is how society is today. We have to adjust to cope with artificial intelligence, whether we like it or not. The change is already happening in the world today.

  15. The technological data filled world that we are living in is advancing at rate faster than most people even realize. AI or Artificial Intelligence is just one result of the ever-developing technological age that we are living in. I feel as if artificial intelligence is something exciting, and interesting as we are able to advance so much. However, I also feel this evolution is inevitable, but for many people this idea inevitability may not be good thing. This because today I feel as if many individuals fear the use of Artificial intelligence as it prompts many worries. This worries being that artificial intelligence will continue to take jobs away, and that not only will human kind be competing for jobs with other humans but also computer programs as well. Yet with advancements such as mentioned in the article, the technologies being developed are far more advanced then imaginable. As the questions of whether our future will be almost fully be automatic one where software can figure our physics and math, and if there is any limit to what these machines will be able to do. This article discusses a third approach to developing hypotheses in the scientific world. The idea of generative modeling as a” power tool for doing traditional science” (Falk). Scientists use “generative modeling takes sets of data (typically images, but not always) and breaks each of them down into a set of basic, abstract building blocks” (Falk). The concept is broadly related to a term called “latent space” (Falk). Latent space is very abstract and hard to visualize which is why this third approach to knowledge is so upgraded that the artificial intelligence will take over the need for human intelligence. I do agree with the use of artificial intelligence and I am a proponent of new ways to learn beyond our scope of knowledge, however this third way of generative modeling might eradicate the need for the human mind and utilize computers over people to learn more about the universe and beyond.

  16. To possess, the ability to process a significant amount of data in a short period of time is incredible and may be more appealing to an employer. In addition, the robot’s data storage is more effective than a human’s memory. Realistically, if an employer knew that there is a cheaper, more effective labor option out there than, then they will try to replace these employees. These robots are practically indispensable with error rates lowering and being able to work around the clock.

    Generative modeling is one of the most impressive aspects of this article. It is the use of artificial intelligence, statistics, and probability in application to produce a representation or abstraction of an observed target. No human can do facial recognition or predict physical changes quite like that. A negative aspect of generative modeling is that any of the facial recognition data that we used can be stored by these computers, and used to generate fake images or to replace pixels.

    I also agree with the section of the article that talks about the critical thinking, analyzing, and interpreting portion that comes with these fields of study. As of now, these computers do not have the cognitive ability that we as humans do. A researcher is still needed until robots are able to have the creative abilities that humans contain. Therefore, scientists are still needed to make theories and hypotheses to further the development of artificial intelligence.

    Presently, we have robots that perform inputted tasks, instead of conscious robots making their own decisions, which is great for humans because they will keep their jobs, and get more stuff done in general. There are many positives to having a fully-autonomous robot who makes its decisions. For example, self-driving cars, furthering medicine, or tiny AI robots who can fix anything within the body. But to prevent all these new robots from taking over the workforce, the government should implement regulations such as an income for workers who get replaced. Although, with the proper guidance, I’m sure this new technology could benefit us more rather than replacing us humans. 

  17. When reading this article, it reminded me of the many conversations we have in BLAW class about technology and how it is being used in the world. It, especially, reminded me of the example he used on Monday about how Amazon uses artificial intelligence when reviewing the applicants’ resumes. “How Artificial Intelligence Is Changing Science,” written by Dan Falk in Quantamagazine, we can see how technology may play a big part in scientific experiments and studies. From the very beginning, Falk describes, “No human, or team of humans, could possibly keep up with the avalanche of information produced by many of today’s physics and astronomy experiments.” Scientists are relying on artificial intelligence for help scientific studies. “…some scientists are arguing that the latest techniques in machine learning and AI represent a fundamentally new way of doing science,” as Falk explains in the article. He also gives examples on different approaches, using artificial intelligence; one example is generative modeling, which “can help identify the most plausible theory among competing explanations for observational data, based solely on the data, and, importantly, without any preprogrammed knowledge of what physical processes might be at work in the system under study.” With generative modeling, an experiment was conducted on the change of the galaxies from low-density regions of the cosmos to high-density regions. This approach, specifically the “generative adversarial networks” (GANs), also was used in a study in which it can make images of people who actually do not exist. In a broader sense, generative modeling “takes sets of data (typically images, but not always) and breaks each of them down into a set of basic, abstract building blocks – scientists refer to this as the data’s ‘latent space,’” as defined in the article.

    With the information being displayed, plus the studies and experiments described, we can see how technology will be a major influence not only in the scientific world, but the world as a whole. Technology is heavily relied on for many things because it puts less weight on our shoulders to do the work. Also, we can obtain results that we probably could not receive from doing it ourselves.

  18. It should be no surprise to anyone that artificial intelligence is influencing science in the ways described within Dan Falk’s article. For years AI has been used by scientists in many ways such as to complete algorithms that are too complex and even detecting patterns that a human would easily overlook. As the research conducted by scientists become more complex throughout the years, AI continues to improve in order to keep up with such research. The thing that fascinates me is that we’ve reached a point in where a computer can create an image of a nonexistent human simply by combining two images of separate individuals, no matter the age difference of the two people used. If any individual was shown the images generated by AI without having any background information, there is simply no way for them to know that the images of the people were not real. Personally, I still find it difficult to believe those images are not real despite knowing they were created by AI. Throughout all of AI’s capabilities, what I find to most interesting is that some AI can pick up on trends or patterns and then anticipate a result similar to how a human would. Although it is great to have a resource like AI, it raises some concern within me that we may be developing technology at too rapid of a pace. If there is already AI more capable than any human in a specific field, what’s stopping companies from eliminating employees entirely and replacing them with robots. We have already seen things like this being implemented in places such as fast food restaurants where it’s no longer a necessary to have a cashier for placing orders or also in delivery industries where machines package all products and even have the ability to deliver them. Although there is no harm in the way that AI is currently being used for scientific purposes, it’s important that we are aware of what exactly we are creating when we program certain AI or technology so that we don’t create something that is detrimental to society. Having AI that can identify galaxies, unblur images, and repair pixels within broken images is nothing but an advancement for humanity. However, we should continue to remain within these limits when giving AI human-like capabilities

  19. Scientific exploration is going through a transition that, in the last 100 years, might only be compared to what happened in the ’50s and ’60s, moving to data and large data systems. In the ’60s, the amount of data being gathered was so large that the frontrunners were not those with the finest instruments, but rather those able to analyze the data that was gathered in any scientific area, whether it was climate, seismology, biology, pharmaceuticals, the exploration of new medicine, and so on. In the article, “How Artificial Intelligence Is Changing Science,” Dan Falk claims that nothing a scientist does can’t be automated by AI. As mentioned in the article, as of now we don’t see any real threat from technology “yet”, but eventually our world will become nothing but artificial intelligent performing most tasks humans can’t perform. Scientists are aware that this AI uprising will take over and do things that humans can’t. To begin, new planets found in distant corners of the galaxy, climate models that may improve our understanding of sea level rise and the emergence of new antimalarial drugs are scientific advances and discoveries that have been in the news in recent months. Based on these kind of discoveries it is clear that Artificial intelligence played a key role in their scientific discovery.

    In the years to come, artificial intelligence being implemented in science will serve as an essential tool making processes much faster. For example, AI systems being able to beat humans when it comes to dealing with huge, diverse amounts of data and computers being able to solve complex problems that do not have to be programmed with the solution. In my opinion, Generative modeling is by far one of the most impressive aspects of this article. As mentioned in the article, this “third way” of learning comes from generative modeling which “can help identify the most plausible theory among competing explanations for observational data, based solely on the data, and, importantly, without any preprogrammed knowledge of what physical processes might be at work in the system under study.” However, a negative aspect of this approach that was also used in a study show that it would “take sets of data, typically images, and break each of them down into a set of basic, abstract building blocks.” This is important to recognize because it will prohibit humans to create, research, and observe information, for the simple fact this technology will improve and upgrade .

    Overall, advances in AI are likely to change every aspect of our lives. In my opinion, science research set to benefit massively from the application of AI. Why? Well suppose scientist have a belief about something, which could be a scientific hypothesis or a function which describes a phenomenon under study. There is some uncertainty, which could be reduced by acquiring more data, but the data are costly to acquire. How should scientists choose what experiment to do next? How can they optimize for the perennial constraints in scientific research of time and money? One thing for sure is advances in AI, particularly those within machine learning, are opening up the possibility to automate these processes. I am excited about the uprise of AI. The application of AI to science research will have the potential to make a much more fundamental societal impact. It will allow us to understand and explore the use of new materials and new techniques.

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