Behind Each Breath, an Underappreciated Muscle

from NYTs

Some muscles get all the glory. Bodybuilders show off their swollen triceps; sprinters flash their sharp-edged calves. But deep inside all of us, a sheet of muscle does heroic work in obscurity.

In order to breathe in, we must flatten the dome-shaped diaphragm; to breath out, we let it relax again. The diaphragm delivers oxygen to us a dozen times or more each minute, a half-billion times during an 80-year life.

“We are completely dependent on the diaphragm,” said Gabrielle Kardon, a biologist at the University of Utah. “But we take it for granted every moment we’re breathing.”

To Dr. Kardon, the diaphragm is not just underappreciated but puzzling. All mammals, from platypuses to elephants, have a diaphragm. But no other animal has one. “We have a very different solution for breathing than reptiles and birds,” said Dr. Kardon.

Before the evolution of a diaphragm, our reptilelike ancestors probably breathed the way many reptiles do today. They used a jacket of muscles to squeeze the rib cage.

Once the diaphragm evolved, breathing changed drastically. Mammals gained a more powerful, efficient means to draw in a steady supply of oxygen. The evolution of a diaphragm may thus have made it possible for mammals to then evolve a warm-blooded metabolism. Without a diaphragm, humans might not have been able to evolve giant — but oxygen-hungry — brains.

More here.

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25 Responses to Behind Each Breath, an Underappreciated Muscle

  1. Rachel Altman April 10, 2015 at 12:15 pm #

    Everyday in my life I always find that I’m taking something else for granted. For instance, just like this article say, I take my diaphragm for granted. I hardly ever think about my breathing except for when I feel like I can’t, or on the off chance I go to a Yoga class and then they tell me how important it is to focus on your breathing. The saddest part about all of this is I’m almost 100 percent positive I’ve learned how important it is to breathe in certain circumstances. When I moved to the east coast and experienced what it was like walk outside in a winter I realized I would hold my breath when I would walk for whatever strange reason. I asked others if they did this and they all said no. I remember trying to focus on my breathing from then on out when walking in the cold. Breathing is also very important when it comes to calming down. Take a deep breath in and deep breath out, it really does help! But for whatever reason this article is so right. Most people take one of our hardest working muscles for granted and it is the one we are most dependent on! You can’t live without breathing, so I think we ought to try to give this muscle a little more respect.

    The statistics in this article is truly incredible. One in every 2500 babies is born with a whole in their diaphragm. This means that the growth of this baby will potentially be stunted. I’m sure these children who grown up truly understand the meaning of how important it is to breathe and take care of yourself.

    It’s awesome to see that the researchers and doctors of our time are focusing in on subjects that the majority of humans don’t even think about.

  2. Suzaun Shahamat April 10, 2015 at 1:44 pm #

    Often, people just go about their day without really thinking what it takes for one human to live on this earth. For example, have you ever thought of how the first language was created and how the earth allows for us to be able to live on this planet without being crushed or suffocated by the chemicals in the air? The answer to that, is no. Rarely people think about that! I remeber one day I was laying in my room thinking about how the first humans knew how to communicate to the point where they have created a overpopulated society today!
    We don’t think about when we breath in we are taking precious gasps of gas. Oxygen is one of the things humans need to live and we [humans] are mutually dependent on the plants on the earth. With every breath we take or diaphragm contracts and it allows for our crazy body system to support another life by releasing co2 and recieving oxygen from them!

  3. Michelle Suarez April 10, 2015 at 3:33 pm #

    The way the human body works is amazing! Our body is covered in muscles and all are used specifically. As biologist Gabrielle Kadon from the University of Utah says “We are completely dependent on the diaphragm”, and many of us probably haven’t thought about it. “The evolution of a diaphragm thus have made it possible for mammals to then evolve a warm blooded metabolism” without this important fact the human race could be different than how we know it today.

    “Mutations caused certain embryonic cells to grow into an entirely new muscle” which happens in many different mammals. Over time things begin to adjust to their new homes, at times causing them to change shape or adjust to a new habitat. Doctors are also trying to understand why some babies are born with undeveloped muscles which at times can cost the babies life.

    It’s important that doctors keep performing studies on why humans are born with congenital diaphragmatic hernias. Dr. Tabin a geneticist says “the new study offers a molecular explanation for how congenital diaphragmatic hernias occur”. As doctors keep doing their research they will continue on coming up with new ways how someone with this condition can live a comfortable life.

  4. Stefanie DiPaolo April 10, 2015 at 5:02 pm #

    The title of this article, “Behind Each Breath, an Underappreciated Muscle,” grabbed my attention because breathing is a task that no one really thinks of. For me, looking at the title made me stop for a minute and think about exactly how much effort the body goes through to get each breathe into and out of the lungs and corresponding organs. The body is completely dependent on the diaphragm. The diaphragm the muscle that controls the body/s breathing. Without the diaphragm the body would have a completely different way of breathing.

    In this article, scientists conduct studies to figure out why babies are born with congenital diaphragmatic hernias, which is basically a hole in the diaphragm. One in every 250,000 babies are born with this condition and later die from it since they are unable to breathe properly. Although the whole process of breathing is never really thought out, it is a very important part of living, as seen through the children that do pass away from the mutation in their diaphragm. It is relieving to know that even though the diaphragm and breathing in general are often overlooked that there are a team of scientists working to figure out a solution to this problem.

  5. Dyanira Custodio April 10, 2015 at 6:19 pm #

    Many people say that they want to work out to look good. But not many people say that they want to work out to feel good. Often the latter is the most beneficial. It is more important to be healthy than it is to “look good”. Keep in mind that many people look good, namely look healthy but inside they are rotten and not healthy at all. Other things than exercise contribute to a persons health, things like eating healthy, not smoking etc.

    Often we think about appearance, yet we don’t pay to much mind to the appearance of the organs and those muscles which play the biggest role for our survival. Seems like the author places a lot of importance to he lungs as one of the most important muscles in the body. I for one agree with that. Together with the brain, the lungs are extremely important to our human existence.

  6. Walker J. Mondt April 10, 2015 at 9:07 pm #

    The act of breathing is a miracle we take for granted. We subconsciously do it while we are awake and sleeping. The machine that never stops. At the center of the process is the diaphragm. It truly is an amazing process.

    As the article explains, many people think of muscles as the big bulging bumps that body builders show off. But while those muscles stand out, their function is much less important than those of other muscles in the body. The heart continuously keeps us alive every day, yet no one thinks about it. The same can be said for the diaphragm.

    I think this could be a powerful metaphor. While people look at the appearance of things, its usually what happens on the inside that matters. While the muscles may look flashy, its the little things like the diaphragm and the heart that truly keep us alive.

  7. Nelson Valerio April 10, 2015 at 11:01 pm #

    The use of our diaphragm is something we do not take into account on a daily basis and sometimes never even think about. We have so many different muscles and organs in our body that we almost never show any love for our diaphragm.

    This is such a crucial part to our existence and is what keeps us growing and breathing in and out the oxygen our body deserves and needs. Without it we would be like the article said “humans might not have been able to evolve giant — but oxygen-hungry — brains.” Oxygen is what keeps us growing and alive on this planet and without the proper muscles to extract that oxygen then we would have trouble surviving here on planet Earth.

    The article also speaks about babies who are born with a hole in their diaphragm and have a hard time growing in size, and for some of them they don’t even survive long enough to face those difficulties. Not only is it important to be thankful and cherish the healthy organs and muscles we have in our body, but also remember there are some humans not so fortunate. So as you read this sentence and breathe in or exhale just remember the good old diaphragm that is making it all possible.

  8. Alexander Bates April 10, 2015 at 11:19 pm #

    This article really brings into perspective the fact that all life really is one of the most amazingly complex and ever changing things that there is. It talks about the muscles in your body, but then goes on to talk about the diaphragm: an often overlooked muscle that isn’t looked at as much as lets say biceps, but is even more important, as it makes you able to breathe!

    Not only that, but then the article talks about how it has evolved over time, and may be responsible for so much more than just breathing. Over time, the muscle became larger and stronger, thus allowing us to intake much more oxygen as a species, and if not for our large diaphragms, we would not have been able to develop our large powerful brains, as they require huge amounts of oxygen rich blood in order to operate. This essentially shows how each and every part of life is delicate and intricate, and why we should cherish it, if only for the fact that every single little thing had to go just perfectly for us to be what we are as human beings now.

  9. Alfred Valli April 17, 2015 at 2:06 pm #

    This article really opens your eyes to something we all take for granted. The muscle called the diaphragm is very important to us every day of our lives and without it we wouldn’t be here. It keeps us breathing around the clock. When we are sleeping its working, when were awake its working, when were running or exercising its working especially hard to keep up with us and keep air in our lungs and help all of our organs and muscles work together. Although other muscles are thought of as more important there is none as important as this one.

    The article also talks about how this muscle and its evolution has helped us as a species develop over time. Without this muscle many animals including humans would not have been able to develop to where we are now. This muscle is truly taken for granted and we really dont think about how much we really use it. The article said we breath and use that muscle almost half a billion times in our lifetime and that is incredible. there are not many machines or technology that can be used that much and still work and operate efficiently.

  10. Zack Lisanti April 17, 2015 at 2:06 pm #

    This is a really nice change of pace for these articles. I was really happy to read this because it points out how amazing the human body is. The fact that so many complex things are going on right now in my body as I write this comment is simple mind blowing. Another thing about this article was it shows how many other animals use the diaphragm. This is really cool to see because so many other animals have and use a similar organ to us. This points out how well tuned we are in certain aspects to live on this planet as efficiently as possible. This article shows how we as people should learn to appreciate life, because so much goes into it, and it is so complex. If everything in your body was not like it is now, you probably would not be here.

  11. Ashley Scott April 17, 2015 at 5:22 pm #

    I would have never imagined how important the diaphragm is to the development of the human body. I found it interesting that the diaphragm delivers oxygen to us a dozen times or more each minute. Our existence is completely dependent of our diaphragm. This article provided tremendous information on the importance of the diaphragm with our development. It sad that one in every 2,5000 babies are born with a hole in their diaphragm. This only increases their chances to e born with congenital diaphragmatic hernias and die of the defect before birth. After reading this article I now am interesting in finding ways to increase the muscle strength in my diaphragm. Since that little guy is so important I guess I should find a means to make it stronger.

  12. Kevin Giron April 17, 2015 at 6:07 pm #

    The title to this article really caught my eye, I was very interested to see what muscle this article was alluding to. The introduction furthered my interest, when stating that deep inside all of us is a sheet of muscle that does heroic work in obscurity. This muscle is the diaphragm. In order to breathe in, we flatten the dome-shaped diaphragm and to breathe out, we let it relax. It’s crazy that the diaphragm delivers oxygen to us a dozen times or more each minute, which calculates a half-billion times during a 80-year life. This is a muscle that everyone needs to live but many people, myself included take it for granted.

    Even more interesting is that other mammals have diaphragms as well, but no other animal has one. Once the diaphragm fully evolved, breathing changed for the better. Mammals gained a more powerful and efficient means to bring in oxygen.On another note, it is discouraging to read that one in every 2,500 babies are born with a hole in their diaphragm. A third of babies born with congenital diaphragmatic hernias die. The information provided in this article is eye popping, I wouldn’t have been able to read through this article and post a comment if my diaphragm wasn’t working 24/7.

  13. Christopher Fowlkes April 17, 2015 at 7:44 pm #

    The little things in life always go under appreciated. We usually take them for granted or we don’t notice them at all, as if they didn’t exist. Breathing is something we normally don’t think of having to do because it’s a mostly automatic process. No one compares how good of a breather they are, they compare muscles that are visible to us. The diaphragm is a lone muscle that allows us to live, but malfunction will have a severe consequence. The diaphragm is a very basic muscle with a sole job. It may work more efficiently compared to animals respiratory systems but it seems very fragile. Still, for it to have such importance is eye opening.

    Another thing this article brings is that with a little experimentation we can solve a lot of problems. The researchers found out how the diaphragm develops which gave them insight on how problems can occur. The research also show how complicated basic processes are for humans. We think that a simple muscle contraction allows us to breathe but it is far beyond that point. Admiring the little beauties in life like the diaphragm makes the big picture, like a mammal seem even more amazing.

  14. Kevin Dorward April 17, 2015 at 10:10 pm #

    The diaphragm is one of the most underrated muscles in our body but many other muscles are underrated as well. No one ever even thinks about breathing when they do, let alone think about the muscle that allows for it to be possible. Many muscles in our body are also over looked and forgotten. Every little thing that we do involves using our muscles but most of the time we don’t think about it. But not many muscles are as important as the diaphragm. On top of that, it is also a very unique muscle occurring only in mammals.

    The way this article explained the diaphragm is very interesting in the way that it discusses how it came to be. It gets you thinking about the way we evolved and how it happened. The way we look and act is all a result of mutations in our body. Although mutations can be known as being bad things mutations lead to the way our bodies look and perform today. However most mutations are bad things. In this article it talked about how 1 in 2,500 babies are born with holes in their diaphragms caused by mutations. This defect causes some of these babies to die or live with defects for the rest of their lives. It makes me realize that with all the cells in my body I’m lucky that no mutations in my body were life threatening.

  15. L.E. Baron KJP April 24, 2015 at 8:01 pm #

    Every once in a while I will find something that reminds me of how amazing the human body is. This is one of them. When I think about how every part plays such an essential role and how they work in synergy, I cannot help being in awe. The diaphragm is a muscle I heard of, but never sought to find out more about. Like the article suggests, it is usually overlooked. Little did I know that it played such an important role. After looking at a picture, I realize how much easier it makes breathing, especially compared to the method reptiles use to breathe. I am not sure how I would feel about being cold blooded or having my ribs pushed down every time I breathe. The article also mentioned how the mammal brain was able to get bigger as a result of the surplus of oxygen. Whether one believes in God or in whatever else there is, one has to agree that there has to be some supernatural force involved in the formation of the human body, and the wonderfully well-built machine that it is. It doesn’t take someone in the medical field to realize that.

  16. Brendan Lloyd April 27, 2015 at 10:27 am #

    This article brings to light something that many if not all people fail to think about each and every day. Each breath that we take, we never really think the process that is taking place and what is going on our body to keep us alive. One of the most important muscles in our body is the diaphragm because without it we would be in deep trouble and not here today. This muscle alone is what keeps us breathing. From the time we wake up from the time we go to sleep our diaphragm is constantly providing us with oxygen to our lungs in addition to keeping other organs working and allowing them to do their functions. Out of all the jobs that other muscles and organs have I do believe the diaphragm is the most important especially after reading this article.
    Within this articles it all discusses muscles and how over time they have changed and evolved into something that would have never been seen in past years. Without these specific muscles growing and changing we most likely would have not been able to do many of the things that we take for granted today. Without even knowing it we use this muscles at least half a billion times which is stated in the article. In order to live a proper life we must need our diaphragm to be working up to full speed.

  17. Dylan Walko April 27, 2015 at 5:48 pm #

    Without question we are told from a young age that our bodies are a temple that must be nourished and cared for, but that seems to be a very broad yet specific request. When muscles are brought up there is a clear thought process: biceps, toned legs, abs. But no one ever really thinks of small muscles that are so scientifically important when it comes to everyday function, or life for that matter. The diaphragm being the muscle that both allows for the intake and then release of air is the muscle that truly gives us life. Infants that are born with malfunctions or holes in their diaphragm either die or are forever handicapped due to it. But the beauty of modern medicine and continuous study show that with new innovations and understanding this does not need to be something entirely fatal. The chemical tracking of the GATA4 gene is also something that is amazing in itself. Being able to isolate and single gene and seeing how it either replicates properly or ruptures causing the liver to put pressure on the lack of muscle. It’s an amazing feat that is only the beginning of advanced medical knowledge that will spread to the entire human body before long.

  18. Wilfred Kiboro May 1, 2015 at 7:15 pm #

    Breathing is a natural expansion and contraction within your body. Babies automatically breath with their diaphragm. Research shows that, by breathing with your diaphragm, your lungs expand and expel waste more efficiently. Diaphragmatic breathing slows your breath, relaxes your nervous system, detoxifies your organs, aids circulation and digestion, improves your immune system, reduces high blood pressure, builds stamina and heightens your sense of well-being. Whenever you feel stress, check to see how you’re breathing.

    Anytime you focus on your breath, you become more aware, focused and relaxed, which helps you function better overall. This is a tactic most athletes use and the most iconic one is Cristiano Ronaldo. Whenever Ronaldo lines up a free-kick, corner or penalty, he takes a step back and takes in a nice long deep breath before proceeding to kick the ball. I believe this is a vital part Ronaldo’s exquisite conversion rate formula.

  19. Dakota Best May 1, 2015 at 8:01 pm #

    The diaphragm is just one of the many muscles in our body that does wonders, without us even realizing it. It allows us to breathe and to live. But this is not the only amazing muscle that the body posses. Another is the skin. The skin is in fact a muscle and is forgotten as one and just thrown aside. It protects us from germs, and allows us to release toxins that are in our body. Being able to do so keeps our body healthy and functioning. The skin also allows for small parts of oxygen and carbon dioxide to leave the body. This being said, I think that the skin is another muscle in the body that is extremely under appreciated. Without both of these extremely well built and functioning muscles our bodies would not be able to function. Life would cease to exist and if it did exist it would be a constant struggle to do so.

    The diaphragm is a very valuable muscle that is under appreciated but over used. Without it our breathing would be short, and shallow. It allows us to breather better and to be able to exercise and play games. It is a vital tool for life as we know it.

  20. Thomas Guglielmo May 1, 2015 at 8:47 pm #

    This article discusses the biological history and importance of the diaphragm. The article calls the diaphragm the most underappreciated muscle. This is apparent in many situations where we catch people saying, “What,” multiple times during a conversation.

    It is important for people to be mindful of the power of their diaphragm when speaking. Speaking clearly comes from utilizing the diaphragm to project one’s voice. This is made possible because the diaphragm is a muscle that can be filled to the brim with air before speaking.

    Taking a moment to inhale, exhale, inhale again, and then speak would help anyone project their voice better before a presentation. I notice in my own conversations and speeches that sometimes I have to pause and become mindful of my diaphragm before continuing. When I don’t take that moment to pause and assess the level of my voice, I tend to talk softly or mumble. The diaphragm should be something we are grateful for every day, with every breath.

  21. Mohammad Badwan May 1, 2015 at 9:00 pm #

    This seemed like a very interesting article when I read the title so I decided to read it. I can honestly say that my facial expressions kept changing each time a piece of information came by because I am so amused yet interested at how important our diaphragm is. It does sound silly, but it may be the most thoughtful idea I’ve heard all week.

    The phrase “say it with your chest” is a correlation to this article I think. Using your diaphragm shows that you have control over your voice and that you have authority to speak. I am also biased because I personally hate when I can’t hear someone or they can’t project your voice. I understand you might be a shy person, but you’re an adult for God’s sake! You gotta learn how to talk sooner or later!

  22. Brigid Minue November 7, 2015 at 10:10 pm #

    Everyday I think of exercising to build muscle or loose weight but, there’s always an excuse I make. When I read this article, it made me think I am exercising everyday in reality with the muscles inside me. This article was a very interesting tip to know. This tip actually built a little confidence in myself that made me think that I am improving my health.

    From this article, the tip made me think of other things I do to improve my health everyday. For instance, just walking everyday on campus is actually exercise. In reality, everyday I am exercising something in my body to improve my health. In conclusion, I know now to appreciate the diaphragm in my body that actually improves my health everyday.

  23. VM February 6, 2016 at 2:58 pm #

    I really enjoyed reading this article. I believe Carl Zimmer has brought about a great point and topic to discuss. The idea that one of the most important muscles is the diaphragm, is such an overlooked idea in my opinion. Honestly, I didn’t know much about the diaphragm prior to reading this article nor how important it was for mammals, which includes us, to breath. The experiments conducted on the mice by Dr. Kardon were very interesting to me. At first I didn’t really understand the point of the experiments but as I re-read I did. These types of experiments are crucial to the learning process of the human body. We need to know and understand how everything, good and bad, occurs within the human body in order to fix the mutations as best as possible. The discovery of how the diaphragm develops was interesting as well as how they determined what gene’s mutate and how the mutation and set off the development of a hernia causing the diaphragm to rupture.
    As spoken about in the article, the diaphragm developed over time. It helped to create a much better and more efficient system of breathing for mammals. A quote from the article I really liked was “Without a diaphragm, humans might not have been able to evolve giant — but oxygen-hungry — brains.” I really like this statement because it truly shows how important the diaphragm was in the development of the human body as well as its other parts. I found this article to be extremely relatable as well as informative. I currently play for the women’s soccer team and have been playing soccer and sports my whole life. Of course I know my heart and lungs work very hard to keep me in shape and able to run and play efficiently but until reading this article I didn’t know how much my diaphragm had to do with it as well. It really is “underappreciated”.
    I also found Dr. Kardon’s suggested at the end of the article to be eye-opening and true. She suggested, “…the ancestors of mammals may have evolved a connective tissue sheet first, simply to separate the lungs from the abdomen.” If this holds true I find it amazing that that simple development in the bodies of mammals lead to the development of the entire diaphragm. Lastly, I love how Zimmer described this development as almost an easy process for the body. “Muscle cells follow chemical trails made by connective tissue in other parts of the body. Once the connective tissue cells started making a proto-diaphragm, muscle cells already had the molecular machinery required to follow them.” Just those two sentences alone show how absolutely astonishing the human body is.

  24. Caitlin Koska February 10, 2016 at 2:59 pm #

    “Behind Each Breath, An Underappreciated Muscle” explains the importance of the human diaphragm. Our diaphragms are needed each time we take a breath. In fact, in an 80 year long life, our diaphragm will deliver oxygen to us about a half billion times. The article also explains that the way mammals came to have a diaphragm is often questioned. Mammals are the only animals with a diaphragm, and scientists think that through evolution, and mutations in embryonic cells we created a completely different muscle, the diaphragm. The process was pretty difficult to understand, however the article says the diaphragm begins as a pair of folds in the esophagus, that then expand into two waves. These waves multiply outward, creating first, a thin membrane, and then a second sheet inside this membrane, creating the diaphragm. The entire process all sounded pretty confusing, but based off of the tone of the author, it is pretty amazing.
    An interesting aspect of this article is the way scientists studied the diaphragm in mice. They engineered the mice so that their cells would glow, so scientists could more easily track the desired cells. This is completely crazy to me. I have never heard of something even relatively similar. How can we make cells glow within mice without killing them? With just a quick google search of “glowing cells in mice” I realized apparently I’ve been missing this technique for some time now, an article from National Geographic was posted on the topic in 2002, so obviously I missed the boat by about 14 years. The mice are being injected with a jellyfish gene that made their cells glow under a fluorescent light. Whatever cells the fluorescent gene is injected or engineered into, the scientists could easily track those cells and their effect on the mice. This technique has been used to study different diseases, cancer, and in this case, the development of the diaphragm. There will always be debate on whether testing these animals is ethical. In this article, it explains that some of the mice had their GATA4 gene turned off in the connective tissue, and the mice purposefully developed hernias. Just the fact that they are purposefully giving mice hernias seems pretty malicious. However, the bigger picture is that these mice are helping to further research and find a source of hernias. I’m not going to argue whether or not this should be allowed, but I think it is an interesting piece of the article that wasn’t mentioned by the author.
    The article also explained how reptiles, who do not diaphragms, breathe. Reptiles have to use a jacket of muscles to squeeze the rib cage. This is a much less powerful method compared to breathing using a diaphragm. I guess the author, Carl Zimmer, is right in saying that the diaphragm is taken for granted. Without this powerful muscle, mammals wouldn’t have an efficient way to achieve a steady stream of oxygen. We would have to, like reptiles, use all of the muscles surrounding our ribcages just to push out a breath. Without oxygen, not much would happen with our bodies. It would be impossible for mammals, especially humans, to develop the way that we have, without oxygen supporting our functions and our development. The amazing human brain is an oxygen hungry organ, and without our diaphragms, we would not be able to support it. This article offered a lot of insight to a topic I don’t think many people know much about, and the author proved that the diaphragm is both important and taken for granted.
    D.L. Parsell. National Geographic News January 11, 2002. “Fluorescent Mice Herald Gene-Transfer Breakthrough.” National Geographic. National Geographic Society, 11 Jan. 2002. Web. 09 Feb. 2016.

  25. M. Bukey March 7, 2016 at 7:11 pm #

    It is extremely amazing at what the human body is actually capable of, and a lot of times science can only explain a mere snippet of how our body’s function. Like many other functions of the human body, we take breathing completely for granted, and it is only if we have a medical issue that we think about the diaphragm and its purpose. Our boy’s are covered with muscles and tissues that play a specific role in our protection and mobility.

    With all of these involuntary muscles that go unnoticed it is important that we maintain a “well oiled” machine. This leads to the question of what steps can be taken to make sure you keep your diaphragm strong and healthy? It is important for doctors to continue these studies that are being done on the diaphragm, and try to discover why some babies are born with holes in their diaphragms with hopes of finding some type of prenatal regimen or treatment.

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